Evaluation of Different Laparoscopic Sterilization Techniques in Canine Birth Control Programme
High demographic urban and industrial areas in developing countries like India require an effective animal birth control programme which can overcome the problem of hospitalization, postoperative complication and reduce overall cost of operation. Three laparoscopic sterilization techniques namely laparoscopic bilateral oophorectomy (Group I = 20 animals), laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy by electrocautery and endoclipping (Group II = 45 animals) and laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy by only electrocautery (Group III = 20 animals) were evaluated in 85 stray dogs under animal birth control programme.
All the animals were placed on Trendelenburg position and peritoneal insufflations by CO2 (2 lit min-1) at 10 mm Hg pressure gradient was achieved under atropine-xylazine- ketamine anaesthesia. Three ports were needed to carry out the operation. One was 5 mm umbilical and other two were 10 mm paramedian ports.
During laparoscopic bilateral oophorectomy, 10 mm clip applicator preloaded with titanium endoclip was inserted through 10 mm paramedian port to reach contra lateral ovary. Clips were applied at cranial ovarian attachment as well as utero-ovarian junction. In between the clips, the ovarian tissues were resected and coagulated with 60 W monopolar current with effective haemostasis and the resected ovarian tissues were removed through 10 mm port. During laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy, endoclips were applied around the cranial ovarian attachments and the uterine body, cranial to the cervix. Resection and cauterization were performed on mesometrium and uterine body leaving the clips portion in situ. Resected utero-ovarian structures were then removed from abdominal cavity through 10 mm paramedian port. In another group of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (Group-III), the operative procedure remained same, except the application of endoclip.
Mild haemorrhages were observed from the resected uterine stumps during operation and that was more in group III than other two groups. However, subsequent application of electrocautery provided effective haemostasis in all animals. Other minute complications encountered were accidental thermal injury of urinary bladder in three animals of group I and large intestine in two animals of group III. However, these traumas remained ineffective on the patients.
No immediate or delayed postoperative complications like port-site herniation, emphysema or stitch abscess were found in any group. Laparoscopic sterilization techniques were minimally invasive and provided early recovery without morbidity in dogs. Intraoperative and postoperative physiological and biochemical parameters were least affected in these animals.
Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy by endoclipping and electrocautery in dogs provided optimum haemostasis and effective removal of utero-ovarian structures and this technique applied successfully for mass sterilization/ canine birth control programme.