Normal Echocardiographic Appearance and Dimensions in Adult Alpacas
ACVIM 2008
G.D. Hallowell1; T.J. Potter2
1Shepshed, Leicestershire, UK; 2Royal Veterinary College, Herts, UK

The aims of this study were to describe the echocardiographic appearance and establish normal cardiac dimensions and time indices for adult Huacaya alpacas, which have not been previously published. Eight healthy male alpacas (72±6Kg) were recruited. Standard images were obtained using a previously described technique through left and right imaging windows. Inter- and intra-operator repeatability was assessed. Echocardiographic examination was performed on each of the alpacas on three separate occasions and the images were evaluated by one operator on three separate occasions and by one operator on one occasion. Statistical tests used included repeated measures and one-way ANOVA and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC's). Images were obtained in all eight alpacas. Mean (±SD) standard echocardiographic dimensions are displayed in Table 1. There were no significant differences between individual alpacas or from the same alpacas on different days except for pre-ejection period. There was excellent correlation between individuals on different days except for time indices (PEP, MV closure time, RTI) which also had poor ICC's between individual operators' repeated measures and between operators. In conclusion this is a straightforward repeatable technique for acquiring cardiac dimensions in adult alpacas; time indices however appear unreliable.

Table 1. Echocardiographic measurements in adult alpacas

* indicates there were significant differences between animals, ° poor ICC between days and # poor ICC between different measurements performed by same operators and ~ poor ICC between different operators.

Parameter

Mean±SD

Parameter

Mean±SD

PA (cm)

2.31±0.41

RV diameter--diastole (cm)

1.12±0.36

Ao (cm)

2.56±0.43

RV diameter--systole (cm)

0.83±0.32

AoS (cm)

3.04±0.37

IVS--diastole (cm)

1.24±0.28

PA:Ao

0.91±0.04

IVS--systole (cm)

1.68±0.25

LAD (cm)

4.94±0.42

LV diameter--diastole (cm)

5.17±0.75

ET (ms)

0.20±0.06

LV diameter--systole (cm)

3.10±0.72

PEP (ms)*°

0.08±0.03

Free wall--diastole (cm)

1.26±0.39

EPSS (cm)

0.29±0.18

Free wall--systole (cm)

1.67±0.32

MVclosure time (ms)°#

0.10±0.06

Fractional shortening (%)

40.5±8.31

RTI (ms)°#~

0.14±0.05

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

0.77±0.09

Speaker Information
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Gayle Hallowell, MA, VetMB, CertVA, DACVIM, MRCVS
Shepshed, Leicestershire, United Kingdom


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