Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Ventricular Size in Cattle
ACVIM 2008
G.D. Hallowell1; T.J. Potter2
1Shepshed, Leicestershire, UK; 2Royal Veterinary College, Herts, UK

Measurements of the right ventricle (RV) taken from standard M-mode views of the left ventricle have been shown to have wide variability and poor repeatability due to the spiral shape of the RV. In this study, novel measurements of RV area and the trabecula septomaginalis (TS) using previously reported echocardiographic views are examined. These values may result in better triangulation and more repeatable measurements in clinical patients. The aims of this study were to report normal values for these novel measurements and assess repeatability in adult dairy cows. Eight healthy adult Holstein Friesian cattle (656±11Kg) were recruited and examined on three consecutive days. Standard echocardiographic images were obtained and analysis was performed using three cardiac cycles of the right parasternal long axis projections optimised to show the pulmonary artery (PA), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) or left ventricle (LV) and using a short axis projection at the level of either the left ventricle (LV-SA) mitral valve (MV-SA) and left parasternal long axis projections of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Data was analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA, Student's T-test and repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients. TS length and areas from comparable views were compared; if no differences were noted measurements were pooled. Data are displayed in table 1. Good repeatability (ICC>0.85) was obtained for all measurements between different measures and different days except for RV diameter from M-mode. These novel measurements for assessment of RV size are reliable and repeatable and may allow for better evaluation of RV enlargement in clinical patients.

Table 1. Echocardiographic measurements pertaining to RV in adult cattle.

Poor ICC between days and # poor ICC (ICC<0.85) between different measurements.





PA (cm)


Total RVOT area (cm2)--PA and RVOT view


Ao (cm)


Total RV area (cm2)--LV-SA view




Total RV area (cm2)--MV-SA view


RVDd (cm) #


Area--TS to apex (cm2)--LVOT and LV views


RV TS length (cm) LVOT and LV views


Area--TS to TV (cm2)--LVOT and LV views


RV TS length (cm) RVOT and PA views


Area--TS to apex (cm2)--PA and RVOT views


Total RV area (cm2) LVOT and LV views


Area--TS to TV (cm2)--PA and RVOT views


Speaker Information
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Gayle Hallowell, MA, VetMB, CertVA, DACVIM, MRCVS
Shepshed, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

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