Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Among Veterinary Staff, Companion Animals, and Hospital Environments in Small Animal Hospitals in Korea
So Hyun Kim; Sook Shin; Woo Kyung Jung; Young Kyung Park; Sun Young Hwang; Young Hwan Paik; Jun Man Kim; Sun Young Park; Jung Won Kang; Hye Cheong Koo; Yong Ho Park*
Department of Microbiology, KRF Zoonotic Disease Priority Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 Program for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University
Number of people live with companion animals has dramatically increased in modern society. Because antimicrobial agents used in human medicine are frequently used in small animal veterinary practice, companion animals may be an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, the occurrence of major antimicrobial resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CNS), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and expended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated among veterinary staff, hospitalized animals, and hospital environments in small animal hospitals in Korea. A total of 215 samples were taken from 24 veterinary staff (48 samples from nasal mucosa and hands), 31 hospitalized animals (140 samples from anus, skin, ear, nasal mucosa, urine, and wound area), and 27 environmental surfaces of animal hospitals (examination and treatment tables, medical equipments, doors, etc.). Antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI guideline. A total of 65 MR-CNS (63.7%--25 staff, 78.1%; 32 dogs, 57.1%; 8 environmental sites, 57.1%), 4 MRSA (dogs, 50%), 29 ESBL-producing E. coli (dogs, 64.4%), and 8 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (dogs, 32%) were isolated. No VRE was detected, and MRSA and ESBL-producing strains were not detected from staff and environmental sites. Determination of MIC, genotyping of the antibiotic resistant strains, and further study to identify the specific mode of transmission between human and animals are currently ongoing. Currently, national surveillance programs only focus on food animals, and data on companion animals, which are in close contact with humans, are needed for assessing the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.