André L. Selmi, DVM, MS, PhD; Grazielle Logatto; Daniel Pires; Melissa Sanches; Bruno T. Lins, DVM, MS
Goniometry is the measurement of angles, and it is an important tool in assessment of efficacy of medical and surgical treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of joint extension and flexion in awake dogs and to establish reference values for the miniature poodle, Yorkshire terrier and dachshund. Thirty dogs of each breed were used. Dogs were considered free of any orthopedic disease by means of clinical examination. A plastic goniometer was used to determine joint angles of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle and hip. Maximal flexion and extension angles were evaluated in triplicate by the same evaluator. Data were compared between left and right joints and between breeds by a one-tailed t test for each joint. Mean ± SD maximum extension and flexion angles for the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle and hip were respectively: 17±5 E, 166±4 F; 21± 5 E, 166±6 F; 74±9 E, 167±4 F, 21±5 E, 166±5 F; 22±5 E, 166±5 F; 72±12 E, 165±5 F in the poodle, 20±7 E, 165±5 F; 22±6 E, 161±5 F; 67±12 E, 163±5 F; 20±5 E, 165±4 F; 23±6 E, 161±4 F; 60±16 E, 164±5 F in the Yorkshire terrier, and 22±7 E, 165±5 F, 23±6 E, 166±4 F; 42±9 E, 166±4 F; 23±7 E, 165±4 F; 23±7 E, 166±5 F; 41±9 E, 166±5 F in the dachshund. Mean extension angles of the shoulder and hip in the dachshund were significantly lower than that in the poodle and Yorkshire terrier.