E.S. Sanzana; P.A. Torres; M.P. Ginebra; J.A. Planell; S. Suso
Introduction: Calcium phosphate based cements and glasses are biomaterials that possess interesting biological properties that can be potentially employed as a bone substitutes. Two formulations of bone cements and two bioactive glasses were compared with the fresh cancellous bone autograft in this work.
Material and Method: A prospective, comparative and controlled experimental study was performed. A bone cavitary defect of 6 mm. of diameter was practice in the right distal femoral metaphyses of 60 New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were divided in five groups of 12 rabbits that received as implants α tricalcium phosphate cement (CH), monocalcium phosphate cement (CR), phosphate glass of P2O5-CaO-Na2O system (G0), phosphate glass of P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 system (G5) and autologous bone (Control group). The results were evaluated with a radiological, histological and histomorphometric studies at 4 and 12 weeks.
Results: The radiological and histological studies demonstrated a correct osseointegration and substitution of the implants by new bone in all the animals. The histomorphometric study showed that the bone neoformation obtained at 4 weeks was greater, with statistically significant differences in control, CH and CR groups. The bone regeneration obtained with the four biomaterials at 12 weeks is equivalent to the bone neoformation generated for the autologous bone graft. There were no significant differences in the resorption of the four materials at 12 weeks (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Calcium phosphate based cements and glasses are osteoconductive, biocompatible and biodegradable materials that behave as a bone substitutes in the cavitary defects in the experimentation animal.