L. Muñoz; P. Faundez; R. Arredondo
Introduction: Rhinoscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure because it allows exact diagnosis in respiratory diseases that have similar clinical signs.
Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from 21 rhinoscopies done at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Chile between years 2000-2003.
Records were analyzed including patient characteristics, type of nasal secretions, macroscopic changes, microbiological and histological results. Rhinoscopies were done by rostral and retropharyngeal approaches using a 11276 Störz flexible ureteroscope.
Results and Discussion: When analyzed by sex, 71% of the patients were male with average age of 4.2 years. Nasal discharge represented as epistaxis was the most frequent sign. The average time of disease was 5 months. Macroscopic findings were 22% masses, 18% irregular turbinated bones, 22% erythematous mucosa and 2% foreign bodies.
By biopsies and fungical cultures 28% were polyps, 23,8% fungical inflammatory processes and 42,9% malignant neoplasms. The most common isolated mycotical organism was Aspergillus fumigatus (80%), the most frequent nasal neoplasm was Venereal Transmissible Tumor (VTT) (77.8%) followed by adenocarcinoma.
Polyps were diagnosed in higher percentages than those described by Lecoindre (2002), macroscopically smooth inflammatory masses were observed described by biopsy as lymphocytic-plasmocytic infiltration with tissue hypertrophy which suggests the importance of making biopsy procedures by rhinoscopy.
Dogs that presented fungical disease had serosanguineous secretions that in some cases was sporadic; only one dog had nostril ulcers and slight nasal asymmetry. This fungus had been described as a common finding in chronic nasal disease (King, 2002).
VTT was isolated from adult males that presented epistaxis and even hemorrhages. In some cases there was nasal deformity, exophthalmus and nasal fistulas with mucosanguinolent discharge. The masses, generally visualized by retrofaringeal approach, were irregular and friable, but in some cases were smooth and hard. The difference of VTT frequencies found on literature is explained by differences in responsible pet tenancy.
Conclusions: Rhinoscopy is a useful diagnostic technique because it allows direct observation of nasal structures and permits samplings in order to get accurate diagnoses. The most frequent nasal neoplasm was VTT, of the inflammatory processes, polyps had higher frequencies than fungical disease.
1. Lecoindre, 2002, 27th WSAVA Congress Granada. Proceeding Book pp. 337-338.
2. Knotek, et al., 2001 ACTA. VET.BRNO. (70):73-82.
3. King, 2004 Respiratory Disease in Dogs and Cats. W.B. Saunders, Missouri USA. P 665