Avian Triage and Emergency Care
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2005
Sonia M. Hernández-Divers, DVM, DACZM

SUMMARY

Birds remain as common pets. Most the patients visiting the wild animal practice are birds. Birds present with several medical urgencies. The practitioner must be familiar with the necessary equipment and the methodology to quickly/efficiently evaluate and treat birds. A summary of intensive care principles is presented herein, with particular emphasis to wild birds.

INTRODUCTION

 Birds hide disease symptoms

 Care takers/owners usually have limited contact with birds

 Small size + high metabolic rate rightwards arrow rapid deterioration

BE READY! BE READY! BE READY!

 First, train the veterinarian, and the veterinarian staff rightwards arrow education

 Adequate equipment and facilities rightwards arrow have them handy prior to accepting birds in the practice

CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION

 Treatment of life-threatening conditions

 ABC of urgencies or working plan

 Detailed history

 Examine housing/cages

 Five-minute physical exam

 Initial supportive therapy

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION of the Urgent Patient

 Recognize shock

 Shock treatment

 Dehydration

 Hemorrhage

 Neurological dysfunction

 This far, minimum diagnosis

 Recognize stress

INTENSIVE CARE

 Fluids and fluid additives

 Improve blood pressure

 Improve O2 supply

 Remove damaging metabolites

 Oxygen

 Antimicrobials

 Analgesics/anti-inflammatory drugs

 Prevent/treat pain

 Reduce inflammation

INTENSIVE CARE: additional treatments to be always kept in mind

 Nutritional support

 Key in patients with high metabolic rates

 Mimic normal diet

OTHER CARE

 Primary attention to wounds

 Fracture stabilization

 Cleaning

 Anti parasite treatments

INTENSIVE CARE AND FOLLOW UP

 Cardiopulmonary status

 Temperature

 Urination/Defecation

 CCS/Chemical profiles

 Clinical condition

COMMON URGENCIES--zoo/pet birds

 Acute diseases

 Trauma

 New feathers

 Mutilation

 Toxicity

 Convulsions

 Feather removal

 Wound care

 Respiratory/cardiac arrest

 Cardiomyopathy

 Tracheal obstruction

 Aspergillosis

 Other pneumonias

 Teflon toxicity

 Supportive therapy

 GI disease

 Crop/GI stasis

 Enteritis

 Foreign body

 Support

 Quick diagnosis

 Antimicrobials

 Surgery

 Reproductive diseases

 Dystocia

 Peritonitis

 Supportive therapy

 Ca supplementation

 Keep warm and moistened

 Surgery

 Chronic systemic diseases

 Infectious

 Chlamydophila

 Various viruses

 Nutritional

 Weakened patient

 Emaciated patient

COMMON URGENCIES--wild birds

 Trauma, trauma, trauma

 Toxicity

 Lead

 Chelating agents

 Organophosphates

 Atropine 2-PAM, dehyphenhydramine, diazepam

 · Infectious diseases

 Aspergillosis

 Botulism

 Duck plague (DVE)

 Fowl cholera (P. multocida)

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Sonia M. Hernandez-Divers, DVM, DACZM
USA


MAIN : Exotic Animals : Avian Triage/Emergency Care
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