Intradermal Skin Testing in Mexico City: Allergens Frequency
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2005
Nolasco Espinosa Luis Ramón1, Carrera Mariscal Rosa María2, Martínez Aguilar Rocío2
1Departamento de Medicina, Cirugía y Zootecnia de la FMVZ-UNAM 5622-5866. Clínica Privada, Servicio Médico Quirúrgico Especializado, Instituto Técnico Industrial 248 Col. Sto. Tomás, CP 11340. México; 2Clínica Privada, Servicio Médico Quirúrgico Especializado, Instituto Técnico Industrial 248 Col. Sto. Tomás. CP 11340, México

Abstracts: This study was carried out to identify which allergens are found more frequently in dogs with atopic dermatitis in Mexico City. 250 cases, in which intradermal skin testing was performed, were reviewed. 175 dogs (70%) had positive reactions. The most important allergens were American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) (51.72%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (51.72%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (41.37%).

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by environmental antigens that in nonatopic animal create no disease. It has been considered that atopy may affect around 10% of the canine population. Hyposensitization is the mainstay of therapy in canine atopic dermatitis and intradermal skin testing is preformed to select the allergens to be used.

There are several studies about the frequency of allergens in dogs and humans, but the frequency varies among authors, this is because there is a wide variability in vegetation and climatic conditions.

There are not studies in Mexico that determine which allergens are important in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Even though, there are studies in Mexico in human medicine, it has been seen that allergens of importance in atopic humans may not be an accurate reflection of allergens of importance in dogs.

Identify which allergens are found more frequently in dogs with atopic dermatitis in Mexico City.

Material and Methods

The cases of atopic dogs, in which intradermal skin testing was performed, were reviewed and the frequency of positive reactions to each allergen was determined. 71 allergens were tested in each dog (19 grass pollens, 18 tree pollens, 12 weed pollens, 16 molds, 3 insects, 2 dust mite and house dust).

Results

Intradermal skin testing was performed in 250 cases, 175 cases (70%) had positive reactions.

As a group, grass pollens were responsible of 24.59% of positive reactions, weed pollens of 18.18%, tree pollens of 17.64%, insects and dust mite of 14.43%, molds of 8.55% and house dust of 2.14%.

As individual allergens, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) y Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus caused positive reactions in 51.72% of the cases, German cockroach (Blatella germanica) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) 24.13%, castorbean (Ricinus communis), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) 20.68%, ant (Formica sp), carless weed (Amaranthus palmeri), (Bromus carinatus) y Hungarian brome (Bromus inermis) 17.24%, orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), side oats grama (Bouteloua sp), field mustard (Brassica campestris) y house dust 13.79%, perennial ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya), pigweed rough (Amaranthus retroflexus), rye grass (Festuca elatior), Kentuky bluegrass (Proa pratensis), (Secale cereale), white ash (Fraxinus americana), black willow (Salix nigra), hickory (Carya sp), Rhizopus, Puccina y Pullularia en el 10.34%.

31 allergens were positive in less than 10% of the cases and 13 allergens were negative.

References

1.  Reedy Ll, Miller WH, Willemse T. Allergic skin diseases of dogs and cats. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1997.

2.  Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE. Small animal dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001.

3.  Tesis Ileana

4.  Bousquet J, Michel FB. In vivo methods for study of allergy: skin tests, techniques and interpretation. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, editors. Allergy principles and practice. St. Louis:Mosby, 1993: 573-594.

5.  Nesbitt GH. Canine allergic inhalant dermatitis: a review of 230 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978;172:55-60.

6.  DeBoer DJ. Survey of intradermal skin testing practices in North America. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;195:1357-1363.

7.  Carlotti DN, Costargent F. Analysis of positive skin test in 449 dogs with allergic dermatitis. Comp Anim Pract 1994;4:42-59.

8.  Suture GH, Halliwell REW, Thoday KL, Broek AHM, Henfrey JI, Lloyd DH. Canine atopic disease: the prevalence of positive intradermal skin tests at two sites in the north and south of Great Britain. Vet Immun immunopathol 1995;44:293-308.

9.  Tabarez VC, Córdoba RSL, Herrera BJJ, Miranda FAJ. Alergenos más frecuentes causantes de sensibilización respiratoria. Alergia e Inmunol Pediatr 1996;5:152.154.

10. Méndez LA, Paz D, galindo JA, Toriz JE. Principales alergenos en las enfermedades alérgicas más frecuentes. Alergia e Inmunol Pediatr 1996;5:5-8.

11. Hiller A, De Boer DJ: The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XVII): intradermal testing. Inmunology and Inmunopathology 2000;81:289-304.

Speaker Information
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Luis R. Nolasco
Mexico


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