Minimal Access Oophorectomy and Uterine Electrodessication for Urban Dog Population Control
Stray Dog Sterilization Center, Thane Municipal Corporation, Thane, Maharashtra, India
Conventional open surgery for neutering bitches brings with it a regular 4 - 6 cm laparotomy incision with associated handling of abdominal viscera, extended post-operative morbidity, and necessitates inpatient care for a 7 - 10 day period, to ensure complete healing of the incision & mechanical stability of laparotomy closure prior to release. Minimal Access neutering of stray bitches and conventional castration for male dogs was proposed for denting the rapidly exploding stray dog populations in Thane city.
One hundred apparently healthy adult bitches in the weight range of 15 to 25 KG, were randomly selected from the stray dog population. The pre-anesthetic medication comprised Acepromazine maleate 0.1 mg / kg SC, Pethidine 2 mg/kg SC and Atropine sulphate 0.06 mg/kg SC. Sodium pentothal at a dose of 7-10 mg / kg, IV facilitated Endotracheal intubation. Epidural analgesia was administered with 3 ml 2 % Lignocaine containing 12 mg ketamine hydrochloride & the patient was prepared for aseptic surgery. Veress needle placement was performed at the junction of middle & caudal 1/3rd distance from umbilicus to pubis. Following air-insufflation, 30° oblique 5 mm Hopkins rod-lens telescope was inserted from the first post-umbilical midline port for diagnostic laparoscopy. Ninety-two bitches showed no uterine distention, these were taken up for minimal access oophorectomy & uterine electrodessication. The pre-umbilical port housed the dissecting forceps delivering monopolar electric current from the 400 mA underwater cautery when required. The caudal port inserted at the point of original veress needle placement housed the heavy grasping forceps to hold up the proper ligament at the angle of uterine horn & ovarian bursa. While extracting the ovarian parenchyma a toothed claw forceps was used from this port. The bitch was positioned in right lateral recumbency for ablating the Left ovary and on left lateral recumbency for the ablation of Right ovary.
The epidural anesthesia with Lignocaine & ketamine provided excellent muscle relaxation essential to producing the pneumoperitoneum & satisfactory analgesia for dissection & extraction of ovaries. Ante-pubic placement of veress needle prevented accidental injury to enlarged spleens that would be stabbed if the needle placement were at umbilicus. The three 5mm midline incisions enabled trouble free placement of ports & incident free healing of the closures, even in the 38 bitches that had mammary engorgement (14 of these were lactating). These 92 surgeries were clocked at an average of 31 minutes, ranging from 20 to 40 minutes. The Recovery following a single stitch closure for each 5mm incision was uneventful.
This technique of neutering bitches enabled quick release of bitches on the third post-operative day. Shorter stays at the center enable greater number of surgeries to be performed in the available kennel space - vital to controlling populations in the tropics.