Determination of Cardiac Reference Parameters Using M Mode and 2 D Echocardiographic Techniques in Adult Karabash Dogs
Istanbul University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Avcjlar-Istanbul, Turkey
This study was carried out to determine the cardiac reference parameters of Karabash dogs, a breed specific to Turkey, using M-mode and 2-D echocardiography techniques.
The material of the study comprised 25 male and 25 female Karabash dogs aged between 2 and 6 and weighing between 30 and 51 kg. The dogs were divided into 5 groups according to their body weight (BW) which were group I (26-30 kg), group II (31-35 kg), group III (36-40 kg), group IV (41-45 kg.) and group V (46-51 kg); and into 4 groups according to their body surface areas (BSA) which were group I (0.70-0.79m2), group II (0.80-0.89 m2), group III (0.90-0.99 m2) and group IV (1.0-1.1 m2). The dogs were examined in 2 groups according to their sex. The M-mode echocardiographic measurements were taken from the longitudinal axis of the 4th and 6th right intercostal space under the guidance of 2-D echocardiography. Measurement of the ventricular dimensions were made below the mitral valve at the chordal level; mitral valve measurements were made from the mitral valve level when both leaflet of the mitral valve were visible and measurements of the aortic root dimensions, left atrium and right ventricle at end diastole were made from the level of the aorta valve and aortic root (1, 2, 3). The parameters such as EF % and FS % were determined using the necessary formulas. Mean values (X) and standard deviations (SD) of the groups were evaluated using the variance analysis method and the Duncan test was used for multiple comparisons.
Echocardiographic parameters such as the interventricular septum thickness at end-systole (IVSs), and end-diastole (IVSd), left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole (LVIDs) and end-diastole (LVIDd) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole (LVWs) and end-diastole (LVWd) increased parallel to BW and BSA, and LVW was higher (p<0.05) in males than in females. It was observed that fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) values decreased according to BW and the increase in BSA. It was also determined that the right ventricular dimension (RVD), left atrial dimension (LAD) and aortic root dimension (AOD) increased in connection with the increase in BW and BSA and that of these parameters, LAD and AOD were higher (p<0.05) in males than in females. In the mitral valve measurements DE, CA and CE amplitudes and D-E and E-F slopes values increased parallel to the increases in BW and BSA, and that of these parameters only the CA amplitude was statistically higher (p<0.05) in females than in males. It was concluded that the CA/CE ratio of the mitral valve was higher (p<0.05) in females than in males.
The reference parameters determined according to BW, BSA and sex in Karabash dogs, a breed originating from Turkey, will provide a source of information for further studies on this dog breed.
#This work was supported by the Research Fund of The University of Istanbul. Project Number: T-687/280699
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