The Efficacy of Ibafloxacin Tablets and Gel in the Treatment of Canine Pyoderma
*L. J. I. Horspool, R. van den Bos, P. van Laar
Canine pyoderma is an inflammatory skin disease that is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Staphylococcus intermedius is the primary cause of pyoderma in dogs. However a number of underlying causes (such as seborrhea, parasites, immune incompetence (corticosteroid use), endocrine imbalance) can predispose to the development of canine pyoderma.
In the present study, the efficacy of the tablet formulation of the novel fluoroquinolone ibafloxacin was compared with a new gel formulation containing ibafloxacin in a multicentre, randomised, non-blinded, controlled clinical study on canine pyoderma in The Netherlands, Germany and Italy.
Dogs with pyoderma were administered ibafloxacin (Ibaflin®, Intervet International bv) orally, at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, as tablets (Group 1, n=94) or gel (Group 2, n=93) for 21-91 days. Clinical examinations were carried out on Days 0, 7 and 21 and then every 14 days until treatment was stopped. Bacterial culture was performed on Day 0. The response to treatment was evaluated using the number of treatment failures (lack of improvement by Day 7 or 21) and the improvement in general condition and pyoderma lesion scores. The overall response to treatment was based on clinical examinations 7 and 28 days after treatment was stopped.
Staphylococcus intermedius was cultured from 82% of Group 1 and 88% of Group 2. The pyoderma was considered to be superficial in 58% and deep in 42% of the dogs in the present study. The mean duration of treatment was 5-6 weeks in both groups. The number of treatment failures and the improvement in general condition or specific disease scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Seven days after the last treatment, 80% of Group 1 and 84% of Group 2 were classed as having responded to treatment (P>0.05). Mild suspected adverse reactions to treatment (dullness, polydipsia) were reported for 2 dogs in Group 1 (2.1%) and 1 dog in Group 2 ((1.1%).
The present study was designed so that all dogs would be treated for at least 3 weeks (suitable for superficial pyoderma). Deep pyoderma requires longer treatment (at least 6 weeks) and is more difficult to manage, thus dogs in the present study could be treated for up to 13 weeks. Fluoroquinolones have a broad spectrum of activity, are widely distributed in the body and can be administered orally once daily, making them ideal for the treatment of canine pyoderma. In the present study, ibafloxacin was equally effective in the treatment of canine pyoderma when formulated as conventional tablets or as gel for oral administration. In addition, suspected adverse reactions to treatment with ibafloxacin tablets or gel occurred at a similar low rate even during prolonged treatment.