Postoperative Analgesia of Carprofen in Dogs. Assessment Using a Multiparamentric Scale
*Retortillo, JL., Carlos, C., Soria, F, Jiménez, J., Gómez, MA, Ezquerra, LJ.
*Departamento de Medicina y Sanidad Animal. Facultad de Veterinaria, Avda. de la Universidad s/n
Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. According to its anti-inflammatory effects and low renal toxicity, carprofen perioperative use is relatively safe.
Methods for assessment pain in veterinary are adaptations of scales used in human pain measurement. The most currently used are the simple descriptive scale, numerical rating scale and visual analogue scale. Pain score is based on subjective behavioral observation.
Multiparametrics scales, using different variables, try to minimize subjectivity of observer.
The objective of this study is to determinate effectiveness of the carprofen in the control of postoperative immediate pain in dogs using a multiparametric scale.
Dogs undergoing surgery were allocated by random draw into 3 groups: group A: 5 dogs given carprofen (4 mg/kg) prior surgery and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after surgery, group B: 5 dogs given saline solution prior surgery and carprofen after surgery, group C: 5 dogs given saline solution prior surgery and after surgery. 7 dogs anaesthetized for radiographic procedures were allocated to group D (control).
Dogs were scored for signs of pain by a multiparametric scales at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after surgery. This was a blind study. Pain score was determinate by the same observer in all dogs. Variables included were heart rate, respiratory pattern, vocalization, agitation and response to manipulation.
Pain score for the placebo group was higher than for the carprofen groups, 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after surgery.
There are not differences between placebo group and postoperative carprofen group in first hour of postoperative immediate.
Significant differences were not detected between carprofen groups at 1, 2 , 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after surgery. Pain score was higher in postoperative carprofen group during first hour after surgery.
Different studies have demonstrate the existence of important variability among observers for estimation of pain score using a simple descriptive scale, numerical rating scale or visual analogue scale. Others studies have demonstrated that inclusion of different physiologic or behavior variables improve sensitive and specificity of total pain score.
In this study, the use of multiparametric scales for scoring pain seen to be effective to assessment pain of postsurgical period. Analgesia provided by carprofen was profound during 6 hours after surgery. Carprofen administered prior surgery provided a better analgesia that carprofen administered after surgery in the first hour of postoperative immediate.