*Departament de Farmacologia, Terapèutica i Toxicologia. Unitat de Farmacologia Veterinària, Facultat de Veterinària. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Bellaterra, Barcelona, ES
For the last decades, anti-Leishmania antibodies have been detected in sera from dogs living in areas of leishmaniosis endemicity (1). The presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has also been described in aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (2). Nevertheless, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dog urine samples. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of dogs suffering from leishmaniosis.
Fifty dog urine samples collected from patients examined at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB from year 2000 since 2002, were obtained from the sample bank of the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service of Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). The urine samples were analyzed at the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service for protein-to-creatinine ratios. Their clinicopathological data were obtained from the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB. Twenty urine samples were collected from healthy dogs for using as controls. Urine samples were examined for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by ELISA as described before (3).
The total 50 urine samples came from 25 leishmaniosis patients and from 25 patients with other disorders. Fifteen out of 50 urine samples were positive to antibody detection by ELISA. The positive urines were from dogs diagnosed with leishmaniosis. All these dogs were seropositive showing high levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies. In addition, all had a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios higher than one (mean, 4.1; standard deviation, 2.9) but they did not present azotemia, with the exception of one dog. Urine from control dogs and the rest of urine samples analyzed from Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service (n=35), were negative to antibody detection. Ten out of 35 urine samples came from dogs with leishmaniosis showing high levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies. The common feature of these ten dogs was urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios lower than one.
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that describes the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine samples from Leishmania infected dogs. These results showed that the urine antibody detection was found only in dogs that presented proteinuria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the meaning and usefulness of the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine. However, it suggests that antibody detection in urine could be a non-invasive method for leishmaniosis diagnosis and prognosis in dogs suffering glomerulopathy.
1. Bettini, S. & Gradoni, L. (1986). Insect Science and its Applications, 7: 241-245.
2. Garcia-Alonso, M., et al. (1996). Parasite Immunology, 18:539-46.
3. Riera, C., et al. (1999). Veterinary Parasitology, 84: 33-47.