Carmustine Associated to Vincristine and Prednisone in the Treatment of Canine Lymphoma
*Silvia Regina Ricci Lucas, Bruna Maria Pereira Coelho, Maurício L. Marquezi, Maria Luisa Franchini, Samantha Ive Miyashiro, Diana Helena de Benedetto Pozzi
*Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Av Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva
São Paulo, BR
Canine malignant lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasm in the dog. Over the preceding 15 years, numerous articles regarding clinical, histopathologic, immunologic approaches and several chemotherapeutic regimens have been reported. Carmustine is a highly lipid-soluble chemotherapeutic agent in the nitrosourea subclass that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts as a non-phase-specific alkylant agent, and it is also used in human tumors of the nervous system and lymphoma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a combined chemotherapy protocol using carmustine, vincristine and prednisone in the treatment of canine lymphoma.
Seven dogs with multicentric lymphoma, stage III to V according WHO, age going from 3 to 7 years and weight of 7 to 54 Kg, were admitted and treated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. For all dogs, the diagnostic was made based on cytologic examination of a needle aspirate of an enlarged lymph node. The dogs received carmustine-BCNU (50mg/m2 at 6 weeks intervals) associated with vincristine (0,75 mg/m2 at 3 weeks intervals) and prednisone (40 mg/m2 each other day).
The dogs received 2 to 7 cycles chemotherapy with carmustine plus VCR (median 5) and 4 to 8 cycles (median 6) only with VCR. Cumulative doses of carmustine ranged from 100 to 298 mg/m2. Six dogs(87,5%, achieved complete remission after induction phase. The median remission duration was 190 days. The survival period ranged from 102 to 1070 days. Marked neutropenia was observed seven days after each chemotherapy cycle. Platelets and red blood cells had no significant alterations during the treatment and no abnormalities were found on biochemical profile that could be attributed to chemotherapy treatment.
No animal developed adverse effects severe enough to require hospitalization, although for some neutropenic dogs, antibiotic administration was necessary. There is little information about the use of carmustine in dogs. Concerning the dogs response in the present study, carmustine can be an alternative option in the treatment of canine lymphoma.