Susan D. Crissey1, PhD; Kerri A. Slifka1, MS; Susan Bunn Spencer
Most captive fish eating animals are fed frozen, thawed fish that are received in bulk and stored for a
period of time before being prepared by cutting prior to feeding. Given the perishable nature of fish, appropriate handling is
crucial to minimize nutrient loss and bacterial load. Fish should be supplied from fisheries that have caught, processed and stored
the fish as if it were intended for human use. Guaranteeing that the supplier utilizes a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
(HACCP) program can help ensure that fish supplies have been handled appropriately prior to receipt.4,5 Every lot of
fish should be inspected before paperwork is signed and the load is officially received. Once accepted, fish should be placed
immediately in the institution's storage facility. It is recommended that fish stored for prolonged periods should be in a freezer
maintained at -23°C or lower. Fish should be thawed under refrigeration, never at room temperature and kept refrigerated until
fed to the animals.3 Equipment used for holding, thawing or preparing fish must be cleaned and sanitized
daily.3 In order to ensure that conditions are appropriate and methods for storage and handling fish are proper,
validation of conditions and procedures is necessary. Fish can be sampled for microbial buildup of a number of specific organisms
at various stages of thawing and handling.1 Fish should also be sampled for nutrients, toxins and heavy metals. A
pamphlet is available that details these standard operating procedures.2
1. Crissey SD, ME Allen, DJ Baer.1987. Food Handling and Commissary Procedures. In:T.P. Meehan and
M.E. Allen, eds., Proceedings of the 6th and 7th Dr. Scholl Conferences on the Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals, Chicago,
December 1987, Pp. 119-123. Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago.
2. Crissey SD. 1998. Handling Fish Fed to Fish-Eating Animals: A Manual of Standard Operating
Procedures. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agriculture Research Service, National Agricultural Library, Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Beltsville,MD.[Online].Available: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/fshhndl.htm.
3. United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. 1999. Title 9 Code of Federal Regulations,
Animals and Animal Products, Part 3--Standards, Subpart E, '3.105 & '3.107, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,
4. United States Department of Agriculture [USDA] Food Safety and Inspection Service. 1996. The
Final Rule on Pathogen Reduction and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems. [Online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/background/finalrul.htm (21 March 2000).