Treatment of Urethral and Bladder Stones in 28 Dogs with Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy
Electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) has been used as an alternative to cystotomy in human medicine to remove urinary tract stones. This prospective clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EHL to fragment bladder and urethral stones in dogs.
Dogs presenting between January 1st 2005 and June 1st 2007 diagnosed with lower urinary stones by radiographs or ultrasound were included in the study. Physical exam, hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis and urine culture were performed at presentation. Under anesthesia, EHL and voiding urohydropulsion were performed. After 12 hours of fluids, patients were rechecked by ultrasound and discharged with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for 5 days. All patients were reevaluated 1 month, 3 and 6 months after presentation by physical exam, urinalysis and ultrasound.
Twenty eight dogs (19 males, 9 females) presenting bladder and/or urethral stones were included in the study and 32 procedures were performed. Median weight was 8.3 kg. Only 2 dogs necessitated a cystotomy because of risk of obstruction. 79% of patients presented calcium oxalate stones, 14% struvite and 7% mixed. Stone-free rate was 100% for urethral stones, 50% for bladder stones in females and 20% for bladder stones in males. 80% of cases presented no clinical signs 6 days after the lithotripsy. The recurrence rate at 6 months was 28%.
Results of this study support the use of lithotripsy as a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stones and bladder stones in female dogs.