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ABSTRACT OF THE WEEK

Journal of feline medicine and surgery
Volume 24 | Issue 12 (December 2022)

Epidemiology and clinical presentation of feline presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular diseases in France: retrospective study of 129 cats.

J Feline Med Surg. December 2022;24(12):1274 - 1282.
Matthieu Mp Bott1, Sabine Chahory2
1 Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, CHUV-AC, Ophthalmology Unit, Maisons-Alfort F-94700, France.; 2 Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, CHUV-AC, Ophthalmology Unit, Maisons-Alfort F-94700, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular diseases in a population of cats in France.
METHODS:Medical records from between September 2013 and August 2017 were reviewed to identify cats with at least one presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular disease. Cats with concurrent, or a history of, ocular or systemic infectious diseases were excluded. Signalment, history and clinical findings were recorded.
RESULTS:Of the 1161 cats that presented to our institution during the study period, 129 were diagnosed with at least one presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular disease (11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.3-12.9). Five ocular abnormalities had a prevalence of >1%: entropion, corneal sequestration, persistent pupillary membrane, cataract and retinal dysplasia. The prevalence of entropion was 2.2% (95% CI 1.3-3.0), with Persians (P = 0.03), Maine Coons (P <0.01) and male cats (P <0.01) being over-represented. The prevalence of corneal sequestration was 2.4% (95% CI 1.5-3.3), with Persians (P <0.01) and Exotic Shorthairs (P = 0.02) being over-represented. Persistent pupillary membranes and cataracts had the same prevalence of 2.3% (95% CI 1.5-3.2), with no particular sex or breed significantly over-represented. Retinal dysplasia had a prevalence of 1.6% (95% CI 0.8-2.3) and Persian cats were over-represented (P = 0.04). Anterior segment dysgenesis had a low prevalence (0.9%, 95% CI 0.4-1.5), with all affected cats being domestic shorthairs and this breed therefore was over-represented (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In a French population of cats, presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular diseases accounted for 11.1% of all ocular diseases. Cataracts, corneal sequestration, persistent pupillary membrane, entropion and retinal dysplasia were the most common conditions. Statistical breed over-representation was observed for entropion, corneal sequestration and retinal dysplasia. We recommend that more systematic screening of feline species is conducted.

Companion Notes

Retrospective report on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular diseases in 129 cats in France

      

Study design

- study population: cats seen at the National Veterinary School of Alfort, France

- 129 cats with presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular diseases

(cats had at least one presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular disease)

- exclusion criteria:

- cats with concurrent, or a history of, ocular or systemic infectious diseases

- history and signalment

- sex:M, 68 cases (61 sex:F)

- median age at diagnosis, 2 years of age with a range of 0.2-12

- 21 breeds were represented

- significantly over-represented breeds

- Persian (OR: 2.9; P <0.01)

- exotic shorthair (OR: 9.3; P <0.01)

- procedure: records between 09/13 and 08/17 retrospectively reviewed

- 1161 cats presented during the study period included

- 129 had presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular diseases

(11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3-12.9)

       

Results

- 5 ocular abnormalities had a prevalence of >1%:

- entropion, 25 of the 129 cats (19.4%)

- prevalence of entropion: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3–3.0)

- over-represented breeds

- Persian (OR 3.4; P = 0.03)

- Maine coon (OR 12.9; P <0.01)

- male cats, 20 of the 25 cases (OR: 3.4; P <0.01)

- median age at diagnosis, 1.6 years of age with a range of 0.2–15.0

- median age for Persians, 5.6 years of age with a range of 0.5–15.0

- median age for Maine Coons, 1.0 year of age with a range of 0.7-4.4

- median age for DSH, 1.7 years of age with a range of 0.2-7.6

- bilaterally affected, 80.0%

- entropion located temporally in the lower eyelid, 51.1% (23/45 eyes)

- Maine Coons overrepresented (all Maine Coons were sex:M)

- entropion located medially in lower eyelid, 44.4%

- Persian cat overrepresented, 5 of the 10 (OR: 12.9; P <0.01)

- entropion located temporally in upper eyelid, 2.2%

- 10 of the cats (40%) presented with other ocular abnormalities

- most commonly

- corneal sequestration

- cataract

- persistent pupillary membrane (PPM)

- corneal sequestration, 28 of the 129 cats (21.7%)

- prevalence of corneal sequestration: 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5–3.3)

- over-represented breeds

- Persian (OR: 12.9; P <0.01)

- exotic shorthair (OR: 17.1; P = 0.02)

- unilaterally affected, 85.7%

- median age at diagnosis: 6.8 years of age with a range of 1.3-16.8

- median age for Persians, 6.7 years of age with a range of 1.3-16.8

- 6 cats and 1 cat had one or two other concurrent ocular abnormalities:

- entropion, 4 of 28

- persistent pupillary membrane, 2

- retinal dysplasia, 2

- persistent pupillary membrane (PPM), 27 of the 129 cats (20.9%)

(iris-to-iris or iris-to-lens strands)

- prevalence of persistent pupillary membranes: 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5-3.2)

- no sex or breed significantly over-represented

- bilaterally affected, 15 cats (55.6%)

- median age at diagnosis: 0.5 years of age with a range of 0.3-12.8

- 20 cats had other ocular abnormalities

- cataract, 12 of 27 (44.4%)

- eyelid colobomas, 5

- entropion and retinal dysplasia, 4

- microphakia, 3

- distichia, 2

- microphthalmia, 2

- corneal sequestration, 2

- anterior segment dysgenesis, 2

- primary lens luxation, 2

- progressive retinal degeneration, 1

- optic nerve colobomas, 1

- cataract, 27 of the 129 cats (20.9%)

- prevalence of cataracts: 2.3% (95% CI: 1.5-3.2)

- no sex or breed significantly over-represented

- median age at diagnosis: 0.7 years of age with a range of 0.15-18.3

- bilaterally affected, 74.1%

- 17 cats had at least 1 concurrent ocular disease

- PPMs, 11 of the 27

- entropion, 4

- retinal dysplasia, 3

- microphakia, 3

- microphthalmia, 3

- retinal dysplasia, 18 cats (13.9%)

(multifocal retinal folds in the peripheral zone of the tapetal fundus)

- prevalence: 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.3)

- over-represented breeds

- Persian (OR 3.7; P = 0.04)

- bilaterally affected, 66.7%

- median age at diagnosis: 3.8 years of age with a range of 0.3-15.3

- 11 cats had at least 1 other ocular disease

- PPM, 4 of 18

- cataracts, 4

- anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), 11 of the 129 cats (8.5%)

- ASD = extensive and complete corneal opacity

- associated with a large adherence of the iris to the corneal endothelium

- and narrowed anterior chamber

- prevalence: 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.5)

- over-represented breeds

- domestic shorthair, all affected cats were domestic shorthairs

- unilaterally affected, 81.8%

- median age at diagnosis: 0.7 years of age with a range of 0.15-10.6

- 5 cats had other ocular diseases

- cataracts, 2 of 11

- microphakia, 2

- microphthalmia, 1

- 19 presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular diseases were observed:

(38 cats had multiple ocular abnormalities)

- microphthalmia

- strabismus

- entropion

- palpebral dermoid

- distichia

- palpebral coloboma

- apocrine hydrocystoma

- corneal sequestration

- corneal dystrophy

- persistent pupillary membrane

- anterior segment dysgenesis

- uveal cyst

- cataract

- primary lens luxation

- microphakia

- retinal dysplasia

- progressive retinal degeneration

- optic nerve coloboma

- primary glaucoma

     

“Primary entropion is an inward turning of the eyelid, leading to trichiasis, which develops at an early age and is due to facial conformation…. Primary entropion is common in Persians and other brachycephalic breeds, and usually involves the medial aspect of the lower eyelid…”

Keywords
Anterior segment dysgenesis; breed-related disease; cataract; corneal sequestration; entropion; epidemiological study; eye disease; hereditary disease; ophthalmology; persistent pupillary membrane; retinal dysplasia;

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