Distribution of Nonhuman Primates in the United States by Accredited Zoologic Institutions, 1975–1995: Preliminary Findings
The importation, use, and secondary distribution of nonhuman primates has been restricted by the Foreign Quarantine Regulations of the Public Health Service Act (42 CFR 71.53; Nonhuman Primates) since October 10, 1975. This paper represents the first effort to review regulatory compliance by the North American accredited zoologic community. A retrospective analysis of American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) studbook records was performed for 59 nonhuman primate (NHP) species, utilizing a total of 32,348 individual animal records.
A total of 2,730 (32%) of 8,596 NHPs in the current (living) population, as listed in the most current studbook for each species as of 1995, were permanently lost to species survival plans through transfers from accredited institutions to dealers or to private individuals. The percent of NHP lost to follow-up varied by species from 0% to 98%, with a median value of 30%. For several species, more animals were lost to follow-up than were retained in AZA institution populations. During the 20-year period of the study, 59% (99 of 167) of AZA accredited institutions listed in the 1995 AZA directory completed at least one transfer event in which an NHP was lost to follow-up. Animals retained in zoo populations moved almost exclusively from accredited zoo to accredited zoo, rather than through dealers.