Renal Trematodes in a Mixed Aviary Collection
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Conference 2002

Drury Reavill1, DVM, DABVP (Avian practice), DACVP; Ben Okimoto2, DVM; Robert Schmidt1, DVM, PhD, DACVP

1Zoo/Exotic Pathology Service, West Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Honolulu Zoo, Honolulu, HI, USA


Although renal parasites are uncommon in birds several reports have been published. Reports include Coccidia within the epithelium of the collecting ducts and tubules, and intravascular schistosome ova in waterfowl, cryptosporidial proliferation in the apical membranes of renal tubular epithelium, and Encephalitozoon hellem infection in lovebirds and budgerigars. Renal trematode infections have been reported in waterfowl with flukes generally found in collecting tubules of the medullary cone. Trematodes may be found incidentally or may lead to clinical renal disease in some birds.1

Sporadic deaths in the collection in this report were noted over a 4-year period. Seven birds were examined (black mask lovebird [Agapornis personata], white headed munia [Lonchura maja], fairy bluebird [Irena puella], white-headed buffalo weaver [Dinemellia dinemelli], scarlet-chested parrot [Neophema splendida], a long-tailed finch, [Poephila acuticauda], and a blacksmith plover, [Anitibyx armatus]). Adult trematodes, identified as Tanaisia zarudnyi were recognized, primarily within the lumen of renal collecting ducts. Associated lesions included dilation of the ducts, metaplasia of the lining epithelium, and an interstitial pleocellular inflammation. Many of the birds had other lesions contributing to their debilitation and clinical signs.

Literature Cited

1.  Schmidt RE. Urinary system. In: Schmidt RE, ed. Exotic Avian Pathology. Iowa State Press, Ames, IA. In press.


Speaker Information
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Ben Okimoto, DVM
Honolulu Zoo
Honolulu, HI, USA

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