Legal considerations regarding the use of anesthetic drugs often concern the use of authorized pharmaceuticals for food-production. Commonly used anesthesia protocols for wild boars (Sus scrofa) include drugs not licensed for food-producing animals.1 The aim of this study was to develop an injectable anesthetic field protocol for food-producing wild boars providing an anesthetic stage of surgical tolerance, stable and physiological vital parameters and a fast and smooth induction and recovery time.
Three different protocols have been compared. Group A (n=6) received a combination of romifidinea, azaperoneb, ketaminec and butorphanold. Protocol B (n=6) consisted of detomidinee, azaperone, ketamine and butorphanol. Animals of protocol C (n=6) were premedicated with brotizolamf and azaperone, followed by a combination of ketamine, detomidine, butorphanol 15 minutes after initial injection. Animals were intubated, receiving supplemental oxygen at a flow of 2 L min-1. Presurgical meloxicamg (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered providing postoperative analgesia.
Heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO2, etCO2 and body temperature did not differ significantly between groups and were within physiological ranges. Nevertheless, animals treated with protocol A and B required additional doses to be anesthetized during induction or to maintain surgical anesthesia, significantly prolonging induction and recovery time. Protocol C required no additional doses during induction or anesthesia, providing smooth induction and recovery periods.
The combination of brotizolam (0.004 mg kg-1), azaperone (4 mg kg-1), ketamine (7 mg kg-1), detomidine (0.12 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.15 mg kg-1) provided an excellent surgical field anesthesia and can greatly facilitate veterinary management of food-producing wild boars.
a. Sedivet®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany
b. Stresnil®, Elanco Animal Health, Bad Homburg, Germany
c. Ketamidor®, Richter Pharma AG, Wels, Austria
d. Alvegesic®, Alvetra & Werfft Animal Nutrition GmbH, Vienna, Austria
e. Equidor®, Richter Pharma AG, Wels, Austria
f. Mederantil®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany
g. Metacam®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany
1. Sutherland-Smith M. Suidae and Tayassuidae (wild pigs, peccaries). In: Fowler ME, Miller RE, eds. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2014:568–584.