Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as gastrointestinal signs, with incomplete response to dietary management and anthelmintics, histological injuries with intestinal mucosa inflammation, and response to immunomodulatory therapies.1,2 This report is about an adult, female serval (Leptailurus serval), with a history of intermittent episodes of vomiting, diarrhea and hematochezia for 4 y. Clinical signs: thickened intestines, macrocytic hypochromic anemia, hypoproteinemia, low serum levels of folate and cobalamin, low infection by ascarids, and growth of Campylobacter spp. in rectal swab culture. Treatment: fenbendazole 50 mg/kg PO SID for five days and repeated after 15 days, erythromycin 12 mg/kg PO BID for ten days, and dietary trial with novel proteins. After treatment, coproparasitological and Campylobacter spp. culture were negative, but there was no remission of clinical signs nor any significant differences in the ultrasonography and blood tests. To define between IBD and gastrointestinal lymphoma, endoscopic-guided mucosal biopsy samples of stomach and duodenum were collected, and mesenteric lymph node and full-thickness biopsy samples of the jejunum and ileum were collected through laparoscopic-guided laparotomy. Histopathology concluded the diagnosis of IBD, and it was initiated treatment with budesonide 1 mg PO SID, a locally active steroid with minimal systemic effects.3 There was complete remission of the clinical signs, significant reduction in the thickening of the bowel, and the blood tests were clinically normal. Chronic treatment with budesonide was maintained, and after 1 y the clinical condition remains stable. In conclusion, budesonide was effective in treating IBD in this animal.
The author acknowledges Drs. Archivaldo Reche, João Cruz, Juliana Tolentino, Rodrigo Pinho and Suzana Couto.
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