The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Hip Dysplasia Database: A Review
Greg Keller, DVM, DACVR
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc., Columbia, MO, USA

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc. (OFA), is a private, not-for-profit foundation that formed a voluntary hip dysplasia control database in 1966 with the following objectives:

1.  To collate and disseminate information concerning orthopedic and genetic disease of animals

2.  To advise, encourage and establish control programs to lower the incidence of orthopedic and genetic diseases

3.  To encourage and finance research in orthopedic and genetic disease in animals

4.  To receive funds and make grants to carry out these objectives

The OFA's voluntary database serves all breeds of dogs and has the world's largest all-breed hip databank on radiographic evaluations of the hip.


 

Due to breed variation by size, shape and pelvic conformation, the OFA hip evaluation is based on comparison among individuals of the same breed and approximate age. Like most hip schemes, the OFA employs the hip-extended ventrodorsal view of the pelvis. Hip phenotypes are categorized as normal (excellent - 1, good - 2, and fair - 3), borderline - 4, and dysplastic (mild - 5, moderate - 6, and severe - 7). Unlike most hip schemes, the dog must be at least 24 months of age and the consensus evaluation is derived from three independent evaluations by board-certified radiologists.1 Breed improvement, the reduction in hip dysplasia, is dependent on the degree of genetic variation within the breed, the accuracy of identifying a superior phenotype, and the selection of pressure exerted upon the trait by individual and/or the breed club. There are numerous reports of dramatic reduction in hip dysplasia in closed populations.2-4 The OFA database - even though the submissions are voluntary - has seen a similar improvement in most breeds.5 There is a strong correlation between the hip phenotype of the sire, dam, and grandparents, with a reduction in the prevalence for hip dysplasia in the progeny.6 Figure 1 represents hip phenotype data on 490,966 progeny where the hip phenotype is also known on sire and dam.

It is assumed that radiographs submitted to OFA are generally prescreened by the veterinarian and the more obvious cases of hip dysplasia are probably not submitted. Therefore, the actual frequency of hip dysplasia in the general population is unknown but has been approximated by Corley and Rettenmaier to be higher than reported by OFA.7,8 However, the main objective of the OFA is to identify phenotypically normal animals as potential breeding candidates in order to reduce the frequency of hip dysplasia. A review of the OFA hip database using a minimum of 5,000 evaluations yielded 44 breeds (see Table). Regardless of the breed, the general trend is for an increase in the percent excellent phenotype and a reduction in the percent dysplastic. Breed differences in the trend rate could be due to initial breed variations in hip dysplasia, the size of the gene pool, and the selection pressure exerted by individuals and/or breed clubs.

OFA is approaching 1.6 million individual hip records, and the real power in this data is the ability for the public to access data through the Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) www.caninehealthinfo.org and primarily from the OFA website (www.offa.org).

  

To 1980

1981 to 1985

1986 to 1990

1991 to 1995

1996 to 2000

2001 to 2005

2006 to 2010

Total

Afghan hound

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

24.4
5.4
2703

27.6
5.6
695

31.9
6.4
787

37.0
4.6
736

34.5
6.6
714

35.5
5.2
620

38.1
3.8
452

30.0
5.4
6720

Airedale terrier

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

4.6
13.8
484

5.8
17.4
604

7.3
15.0
923

8.7
10.5
1056

8.6
6.8
1115

6.2
8.4
1057

8.8
8.5
624

7.4
10.9
5886

Akita

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

7.5
17.2
2047

11.3
17.2
2529

15.5
14.4
3366

20.7
9.8
3464

29.3
8.9
2219

31.8
5.6
1412

33.2
6.1
964

19.3
12.2
16047

Alaskan Malamute

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

10.7
13.7
3547

15.2
12.3
2012

17.9
11.4
2263

17.9
9.9
2068

24.1
7.4
1686

21.3
8.8
1292

23.9
8.1
869

17.1
10.9
13777

Australian shepherd

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

10.6
7.8
2028

10.6
7.3
1992

13.1
5.9
3523

14.7
5.2
5573

19.3
4.6
6711

17.8
5.0
6552

21.4
4.6
5311

16.8
5.3
31885

Belgian Tervuren

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

14.3
5.1
610

16.5
4.8
559

21.7
3.5
807

26.2
3.0
981

32.6
2.3
1040

31.6
2.3
1069

32.9
2.9
763

26.5
3.2
5859

Bernese Mountain Dog

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

2.9
31.2
554

4.1
25.0
929

7.1
19.7
1708

10.5
14.4
2557

15.2
12.5
2918

15.8
13.7
4519

20.3
12.5
4092

14.1
15.0
17525

Border collie

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

21.2
99

8.0
14.3
426

9.5
13.1
957

10.7
11.4
1750

14.1
9.7
2420

13.7
9.7
2843

16.9
8.2
2499

13.4
10.2
11137

Bouvier des Flandres

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

3.1
19.1
768

3.8
19.0
1119

5.3
17.0
1428

6.7
11.4
1648

7.3
10.9
1312

6.7
12.0
976

12.4
10.1
742

6.4
14.1
8033

Boxer

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

1.2
16.9
242

0.9
16.1
217

3.7
13.4
536

3.3
8.2
1075

4.4
8.6
1292

2.7
10.6
1241

5.5
10.0
789

3.6
10.4
5411

Brittany

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

5.9
19.9
2632

5.7
18.6
1916

6.4
16.7
2667

8.2
11.7
3048

12.1
11.6
2916

11.0
10.9
2896

13.7
8.3
1950

9.0
13.8
18109

Bullmastiff

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

1.6
30.5
367

0.7
32.4
299

3.0
29.3
543

3.6
21.4
1276

6.1
22.3
1204

3.3
22.7
1043

5.7
20.1
716

4.0
23.6
5470

  

To 1980

1981 to 1985

1986 to 1990

1991 to 1995

1996 to 2000

2001 to 2005

2006 to 2010

Total

Cavalier King Charles spaniel

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

33.3
15

7.4
12.4
162

3.8
8.9
425

3.1
10.8
732

4.7
9.9
1277

4.1
11.7
1967

4.2
11.8
1639

4.2
11.2
6275

Chesapeake Bay retriever

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

6.1
24.9
1633

7.0
22.8
1629

10.3
23.0
1769

11.0
20.6
2196

16.6
17.9
2182

18.3
13.9
1895

19.9
13.1
1268

12.7
19.5
12622

Chinese Shar-pei

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

5.2
21.5
135

6.5
19.6
1660

8.8
14.2
3588

8.6
9.3
1885

13.3
8.9
1040

12.3
9.4
756

13.1
7.6
487

9.3
13.0
9563

Chow Chow

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

4.5
22.0
673

4.3
23.7
1042

6.3
21.7
1236

9.0
14.4
812

10.6
13.7
584

8.7
13.5
541

14.2
15.9
366

7.4
18.9
5266

Cocker spaniel

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

12.8
8.1
531

9.2
8.9
1164

9.5
7.0
1967

8.5
5.4
2328

12.8
4.4
2636

11.2
5.4
2689

13.4
5.4
1608

10.9
5.9
12991

Doberman pinscher

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

13.1
7.7
2251

13.7
7.6
1541

17.9
5.6
2263

19.6
4.4
2787

22.8
5.0
2475

19.0
5.0
2182

19.1
5.0
1856

18.2
5.6
15406

English Cocker spaniel

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

12.1
7.3
713

10.7
6.7
805

16.5
5.3
1124

17.5
4.0
1207

21.7
5.2
1057

24.4
5.0
1143

28.4
4.9
843

19.1
5.3
6916

English setter

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

3.3
28.0
1423

3.5
17.6
1214

7.9
15.7
1405

10.5
12.7
1668

14.1
12.2
1690

15.4
11.1
1616

20.1
9.7
1212

10.8
15.1
10272

English Springer spaniel

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

7.2
19.7
1791

5.2
18.0
1352

7.3
15.7
2029

9.0
10.8
2433

10.0
9.5
2443

9.9
9.1
2678

13.1
8.0
2007

9.1
12.3
14792

Flat-coated retriever

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

9.0
3.6
333

8.7
3.5
540

19.0
7.0
675

18.4
4.2
933

21.7
3.4
1029

24.8
3.0
1051

26.8
3.0
866

20.1
3.8
5464

German Shepherd dog

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

2.6
20.3
11723

1.9
22.1
11679

3.1
20.5
17243

3.7
17.2
22022

4.8
16.5
16766

5.3
17.8
14525

7.2
17.9
10968

4.1
18.7
105443

German shorthaired pointer

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

19.8
6.9
1371

18.4
7.6
1196

22.2
5.6
2059

24.2
3.7
2866

29.9
3.0
2916

28.3
2.8
3096

33.4
1.7
2126

26.3
3.9
15711

Golden retriever

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

1.9
23.1
16621

2.1
23.2
16290

2.8
22.5
19966

4.1
17.8
23139

5.4
16.1
22386

5.8
16.1
19099

8.9
13.2
13839

4.4
18.8
132110

Gordon setter

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

4.1
25.9
1051

4.4
20.8
923

8.2
20.4
1128

9.4
17.0
959

13.1
12.0
786

12.0
15.7
669

19.1
9.7
476

9.1
18.4
6025

Great Dane

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

6.5
13.0
2050

8.7
15.1
981

12.3
11.4
1396

13.5
9.7
1750

15.0
10.0
2108

11.9
11.8
2426

13.6
10.5
1844

11.8
114
12625

Great Pyrenees

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

9.2
9.3
774

11.7
10.5
759

12.9
9.9
1031

16.2
8.3
1134

16.5
8.3
920

16.0
6.9
756

18.0
7.9
494

14.3
8.7
5890

Irish setter

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

5.1
14.8
3740

6.5
11.3
1257

8.6
12.2
1413

10.3
9.9
1463

13.8
8.8
1295

14.1
7.2
1200

17.9
6.4
825

9.3
11.3
11226

Labrador retriever

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

10.8
14.2
14088

11.5
14.7
16564

15.2
13.3
28242

17.4
11.9
43244

20.3
11.0
51208

20.3
9.8
45458

25.3
8.0
27973

18.5
11.3
228094

Mastiff

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

2.5
19.9
322

5.4
22.7
503

5.1
23.2
986

6.3
17.2
2249

9.7
16.5
2778

9.2
18.1
2350

10.2
18.0
1398

8.1
18.2
10626

Newfoundland

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

3.5
31.6
1696

2.9
31.4
1709

6.7
25.8
2338

8.4
21.4
2514

10.6
23.1
2420

11.8
21.3
2561

15.1
20.3
1780

8.7
24.4
15094

Old English Sheepdog

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

7.8
22.9
4434

9.4
18.8
1438

13.8
18.0
1299

15.5
12.9
1091

17.7
11.3
947

17.2
10.3
816

21.8
10.0
578

11.9
18.0
10637

   

To 1980

1981 to 1985

1986 to 1990

1991 to 1995

1996 to 2000

2001 to 2005

2006 to 2010

Total

Pembroke Welsh corgi

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

19.2
99

1.1
20.7
787

1.9
18.1
1583

2.4
14.3
2056

5.5
13.7
2257

3.7
17.3
2275

3.1
18.1
1598

3.3
16.5
10733

Poodle

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

8.0
17.4
2273

7.2
14.1
1821

9.1
14.2
2442

11.0
9.9
3401

14.1
9.9
4058

13.1
9.6
4945

16.6
8.7
3799

12.1
11.2
22908

Portuguese Water Dog

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

1.0
26.2
103

5.0
22.8
303

9.6
16.1
795

11.7
11.3
1271

16.2
10.1
1539

14.6
9.5
1955

20.6
8.7
1739

14.8
11.1
7790

Rhodesian Ridgeback

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

13.9
11.8
1123

19.1
8.5
993

19.2
5.9
1450

23.4
2.9
1879

24.7
2.9
1968

23.3
2.9
2064

27.2
2.5
1575

22.3
4.6
11130

Rottweiler

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

4.3
23.4
5901

5.2
22.8
16624

7.4
22.0
27339

9.2
17.6
22597

13.0
15.8
8973

11.9
15.8
6123

14.2
15.1
4921

8.4
19.8
92692

Samoyed

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

8.3
13.4
3767

7.4
12.2
2460

9.1
10.8
2593

10.9
8.8
2090

13.1
7.1
1787

14.4
8.7
1671

19.1
6.9
1416

10.8
10.4
15862

Shetland Sheepdog

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

26.0
5.6
515

29.7
9.8
549

25.8
6.2
2676

27.6
3.8
4254

28.7
4.0
4640

25.3
3.5
4225

32.5
2.9
2876

27.9
4.2
19842

Siberian Husky

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

24.6
2.7
4453

28.7
2.2
2495

37.6
1.9
2588

38.0
1.2
2616

41.6
1.2
2102

39.1
1.5
1759

41.4
1.2
1396

34.0
1.8
17470

Soft-coated Wheaten terrier

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

12.1
6.9
504

12.1
4.5
877

16.1
4.5
964

16.6
2.5
1030

22.2
4.0
1072

16.9
4.9
892

23.1
5.0
624

17.3
4.4
5992

Vizsla

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

12.7
10.4
1527

12.2
8.0
1068

14.0
7.4
1407

16.5
4.7
2004

19.6
6.0
2468

17.9
5.9
2865

21.0
4.4
2098

17.1
6.3
13547

Weimaraner

Ex %
Dys %
Total dogs

13.1
11.8
1586

12.6
11.1
1040

19.8
8.5
1514

22.4
7.2
2252

25.8
5.9
2410

24.7
7.7
1959

28.1
5.5
1138

21.6
7.9
11946

References

1.  Keller GG, et al. The Use of Health Databases and Selective Breeding: A Guide for Dog and Cat Breeders and Owners. www.offa.org/pdf/monograph2006web.pdf

2.  Hedhammar A, Olsson SE, et al. Study of heritability in 401 litters of German shepherd dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1979;174(9):1012–1016.

3.  Swensen L, et al. Prevalence and inheritance of and selection for hip dysplasia in seven breeds of dogs in Sweden and benefit: cost analysis of a screening and control program. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;210(2):207–214.

4.  Leighton EA. Genetics of canine hip dysplasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;210(10):1474–1479.

5.  Kaneene JB, et al. Update of a retrospective cohort study of changes in hip joint phenotype of dogs evaluated by the OFA in the United States, 1989–2003. Vet Surg. 2009;38:398–405.

6.  Keller GG, et al. How the orthopedic foundation for animals (OFA) is tackling inherited disorders in the USA: using hip and elbow dysplasia as examples. Vet J. 2011;189:197–202. doi: 10.1016/j. tvjl.2011.06.19

7.  Corley EA, et al. Reliability of early radiographic evaluation for canine hip dysplasia obtained from the standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;211(9):1142–1146.

8.  Rettenmaier JL, Keller GG, et al. Prevalence of canine hip dysplasia in a veterinary teaching hospital population. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2002;43(4):313–318.

  

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Greg Keller, DVM, DACVR
Orthopedic Foundation For Animals, Inc.
Columbia, MO, USA


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