Humane Animal Control Initiatives in the Developing World
Neil W. Trent
Executive Director, Humane Society International
Washington, DC, USA

ELEMENTS OF USUAL DOG POPULATION

 Pets/Companions--Kept in house, fed and provided with health care; low repro.

 Community Dogs--Live in/around community, provided with scraps, may receive health care; high repro.

 Strays/Ferals--Survive by scavenging, no health care; low repro.

TYPES OF DOGS

 

Full Restriction

Semi-Restriction

No Restriction

Full Dependency

Restricted Dog

Family Dog

 

Semi- Dependency

 

Neighborhood Dog

Neighborhood Dog

No Dependency

   

Feral Dog

USA DOG POPULATION

 55 million owned, 80% responsibly--about 38% of households have a dog.

 Annual deaths--ca. 7 million (13%).

 4 million (7.27%) go through shelter annually, 2.4 million (4.54%) euthan.

 75% visit a vet at least once a year.

 LES produced tremendous improvement-from 20% euthanasia in shelters to 5%.

USA TRENDS

 In 1970, 25% dogs were strays, very low sterlzn rates (ca. 10-20%).

 In 1973, ca. 13 million dogs & cats (20%) ex 65 million owned are euthanized.

 In 2000, ca. 5.5 million dogs & cats (5%) ex 110 million owned are euthanized.

 In 2000, approx. 85% of owned cats and 65-75% of dogs sterilized.

DOGS IN AFRICA

 South Africa (40 mill)--10 dogs/100 ppl

 Asian/Colored--13

 Black (urban)--6.7

 Black (rural)--15

 White--35

 Zimbabwe (8.5 mill)--15 dogs/100 ppl

 Zambia

 Mutendere (70,000) 2.2 (urban)

 Palabana (600)15 (rural village)

DOGS IN LATIN AMERICA

 Valdivia (Chile) (86,500)--9.8 dogs/100 ppl

 Latin America--3-5 dogs/100 ppl

 Mexico (81 mill)--5 dogs/100 ppl

 Morelos (Mex. 1.2 mill)--33 dogs/100 ppl

 Miacatlan (6,500)--34 dogs/100 ppl

 (85% of households have dogs)

DOG CHARACTERISTICS

 USA

 90% fed on commercial food; 80% companions.

 Average age is 5.5 years.

 80% more or less restricted/controlled

 Kenya

 95% fed on leftovers/waste.

 Average age is 1.8 year.

 70% outdoors all the time.

 16% of puppies survive to weaning.

 95% guard dogs.

GENERAL WELFARE

 Zambia--70% of urban dogs in good condition, 60% of rural dogs in good condition. Of respondents, 35% said did not like dogs.

 Australian Aboriginal Community--high incidence of scabies & other parasites, ann. turnover of dog population near 50%.

Sterilization & Welfare

 Feral cat colonies--extend individual lifespans for both males & females after sterilization (cf. Remfry, 1981; Tabor, 1994).

 Assateague ponies--improved body condition and increase lifespan after immunocontraception (cf. Kirkpatrick, 2001).

DOG CONTROL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 Wandeler (1985)--Dog populations at carrying cap.

 Reduction in population density leads to improved reproduction & survival.

 Lethal control requires elimination of 50-80% of population per annum.

 Control Environment--Remove garbage, waste, shelter.

ISSUES

 Humane Population Control

 NOT necessarily requires high tech and/or expensive approach, e.g., sterilization in first instance.

 First Needs KNOWLEDGE of people's attitudes and especially behavior.

 NEED--Human Behavior Change.

 "Ownership" & "Control" aspects must change.

 Dog "functions"--e.g., guard, companion, hunting aid--are also important factors.

HSI/TAIWAN ANIMAL CARE AND CONTROL INITIATIVE

 Inhumane animal control practices in Taiwan are world headline news.

 HSI participates in the first animal welfare conference in Taiwan.

 HSI begins a comprehensive training program for Taiwanese animal control and welfare workers.

 HSI enters into MOU with Republic of China (Taiwan).

 Objective: To promote humane animal care and control and responsible pet ownership.

 HSI assists in drafting and passage of first Animal Protection Law.

 Taiwanese Government provides funding for a new animal shelters.

 400 animal welfare inspectors are employed.

HSI/TAIWAN ANIMAL CARE AND CONTROL INITIATIVE

 1998-2003 HSI, with Hawaii Humane Society, conducts training courses in the areas of:

 Animal Care and Control

 Animal Protection

 Shelter Design

 Shelter Management and Operation

 Animal Welfare Inspection

HSI/ANIMAL BIRTH CONTROL EXTENSION PROGRAM IN INDIA

 Collect, collate, and analyze statistical information to demonstrate effectiveness of program to Indian government authorities.

 Collaborative program with Help In Suffering (HIS).

 HSI funds veterinarian for extension program.

 Training provided in more than a dozen municipalities.

 An ABC training manual produced in both English and Hindi.

 HSI also funded the establishment of "Animal Welfare in Practice" program with Rajasthan State Veterinary College.

 Research reveals no cases of human rabies in the area covered by the ABC Program for a 2 year period.

 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) hails as an "incredible achievement," given "the mass problem [of rabies] in India."

ABACO ISLAND, THE BAHAMAS

 To design and implement a comprehensive and effective stray dog control program.

 To use the program as a model for island nations around the world.

 HSI hired a statistician from College of the Bahamas to conduct a preliminary survey. A concluding survey followed.

 This project consisted of 8 spay/neuter clinics.

ABACO ISLAND, THE BAHAMAS

 Sterilized more than 1,000 animals and prevented an estimated 20,000 births.

 HSI presented "Challenges of Animal Protection on Island Nations".

 The symposium drew 74 participants representing 33 island nations.

 HSI produced two reports

 Dogs on Abaco Island, The Bahamas: A Case Study.

 Challenges of Animal Protection on Island Nations: Proceedings of the Conference.

HSI IN NEPAL

 Kathmandu Animal Treatment Center has created a successful catch/neuter/release program.

 Animal Health Care Camps offered throughout Kathmandu.

 A humane education system was introduced to students.

HSI/TURKS AND CAICOS

 Capital city Providenciales.

 Stray dogs are predators of wildlife and attack residents/tourists.

 Fighting dogs (pit bulls) imported and interbreed with stray population.

 Initiate trap/sterilize/ release program.

 Local and visiting veterinarians perform surgery.

 Some feral animal euthanized.

 Humane education component involving schools, churches and community groups.

CONCLUSIONS

 US Model (L.E.S.) has been very successful but not suitable for developing world.

 Address local cultures & neighborhood dog aspect--welfare issues (high puppy mortality, parasite infestations) but people also struggling. Zoonoses an issue.

 Poisoning/Killing not successful; Control environment--human behavior, garbage, shelter--instead.

Speaker Information
(click the speaker's name to view other papers and abstracts submitted by this speaker)

Neil Trent
Humane Society International
Washington, DC


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