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ABSTRACT OF THE WEEK

The Veterinary record
Volume 181 | Issue 18 (November 2017)

Minimum effective naltrexone dose to antagonise etorphine immobilisation and prevent the complications of renarcotisation in domestic goats.

Vet Rec. November 2017;181(18):481.
Jacques Henry O'Dell1, Michael David Kock2, Peter Neil Thompson3, Leith Carl Rodney Meyer4
1 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.; 2 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.; 3 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.; 4 Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
© British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Abstract

Naltrexone is used to antagonise etorphine immobilisation, but a safe and effective dose for this purpose has not been objectively determined. Eight domestic goats were immobilised with etorphine (0.07 mg/kg) eight times at ≥13 day intervals. Naltrexone at doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/mg etorphine were administered intravenously 17 minutes after etorphine injection. Effectiveness of antagonism was recorded based on recovery and renarcotisation scores and clinical observations. All doses produced rapid recovery to the point of standing (median 59 seconds, range 33-157 seconds), with no significant differences in recovery times (P=0.44). The lower naltrexone doses resulted in renarcotisation in some goats: 4/8 in the 10-mg dose trial, 7/8 in the 5-mg dose trial, and 8/8 in the 2-mg, 1-mg and 0.5-mg dose trials. Lower doses resulted in more severe signs of renarcotisation. Complications of renarcotisation included increased body temperature; this occurred just before signs of renarcotisation and was greater in animals with high renarcotisation scores (P<0.01). The lowest, safest effective naltrexone dose that we used to antagonise etorphine immobilisation was 20 mg/mg etorphine, which produced rapid recovery to standing with no renarcotisation.

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Archives Highlights:
Minimum effective naltrexone dose to antagonise etorphine immobilisation and prevent the complications of renarcotisation in domestic goats.
The lower naltrexone doses resulted in renarcotisation in some goats: 4/8 in the 10-mg dose trial, 7/8 in the 5-mg dose trial, and 8/8 in the 2-mg, 1-mg, and 0.5-mg dose trials. The lowest, safest effective naltrexone dose that we used to antagonise etorphine immobilisation was 20?mg/mg etorphine, which produced rapid recovery to standing with no renarcotisation.
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Acute transient sialadenopathy or anesthesia mumps after general anesthesia usually resolves spontaneously without complications when the balance between salivary production and excretion stabilizes.
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All dogs were treated with MMF (mean dose 14.7 mg/kg twice daily) in conjunction with glucocorticoids. Ten of 14 cases showed positive results, with complete remission in eight cases and partial remission in two cases. Mean time to remission was 5.7 weeks.
Identification of a haplotype associated with cholesterol deficiency and increased juvenile mortality in Holstein cattle.
This study describes the identification and phenotypic manifestation of a new Holstein haplotype characterized by pronounced hypocholesterolemia, chronic emaciation, growth retardation, and increased mortality in young cattle, denominated as cholesterol deficiency haplotype. The frequency of the haplotype in the current Holstein population was estimated to be 4.2%.
Vagus nerve stimulation: a new promising therapeutic tool in inflammatory bowel disease.
A pilot study was performed in seven patients with moderate Crohn's disease. Two of these patients failed to improve after 3 months of vagus nerve stimulation, but five were in deep remission (clinical, biological, and endoscopic) at 6 months of follow-up and vagal tone was restored. No major side effects were observed.

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